The Importance Of Data Recovery Companies To Business November 30, 2012 at 8:02 pm

The invention of the computer has made lots of things easier and simpler but at the same time it has made people dependent. These days there is no concept of business without a computer and there are very expensive data servers installed in every organization that hold all of the important data for that organization. This data is stored in hard disks and even though these hard disks are very sophisticated and do not get corrupted, still there is a fair chance of malfunctioning. A decade ago companies and organizations had nothing to do after losing their data but these days this is not the case. There are lots of data recovery companies working and these companies provide you with very detailed and advanced services. Most smart organizations are affiliated with a specific data recovery company and they rely on that company for all kinds of data related needs. Data recovery companies not only provide you recovery services but if your company has to expand its data capacity, they can help you to choose the best possible plan. You should always trust professional data recovery services because they can help your business – http://www.harddrivedatarecovery.org/.

Whether you operate a big business organization or a small business firm, there are almost same kinds of data needs. These days everything is digitized and this digitalization has increased the volume of data that every company produces every day. You need very sophisticated and advanced data solutions that can work for you for years. There are lots of very high capacity data systems in place but the problem starts when these data sources start to malfunction. There is always risk of losing lots of personal as well as business data. In the past people were not that active to retrieve their lost data because there were very few means of recovery but this is not the case anymore. There are lots of data recovery companies that work 24/7 to provide data recovery solutions. These companies work on personal level as well as at organizational level. You can contact them for all kinds of data recovery needs and there is not much expanse as well. Most of the data recovery companies will charge you very less fee and they will retrieve your important data for you. Just make sure that data recovery company is competent enough to handle your data sources properly.

Hire Data Recovery Company To Retrieve Your Data

Data loss can happen to any company and organization but the real problem starts when you cannot retrieve that data with any easy means. Most of the companies equip themselves with very sophisticated data systems and these systems do not get corrupted that often. At times companies do not even have any prior plan of data recovery because they start relying too much on their data resources. When a sophisticated data system gets corrupted then you always need more advanced and sophisticated systems to retrieve that data. These days you can hire lots of very professional data recovery companies and these companies make sure that you do not lose even a single bit of your data. They cannot only solve software issues that your data sources are facing but they have technician and engineers that can deal with hardware failures as well. You should keep a data recovery company on standby all the time because data failure can happen at any time and you may need their services on emergency basis. It will not cost you much because these days there is lot of competition and they charge very reasonably. Just make sure that you are dealing with an experienced team that understands your problem properly.

There are lots of problems that you can face with hard drives and even though modern hard drives are made with very secure and advanced hardware but still there is a chance that it can get corrupted easily. In the past there were not chances of getting your hard drive repaired or of getting your data retrieved because there was not much research going on in this field but this is not the case anymore. These days there is lot of research going on in this field and there are professionals that understand each and everything about data recovery. Whether your hard drive has crashed at hardware level or there is some software issue that is bothering your hard drive, these professionals will find and rectify every problem. The good thing about modern data recovery methods is that you not only get your data back but in most of the cases you get the actual hardware back as well. This is important because in the past even when data was recovered but people were not able to use their hard drive again. You should look at the background of data recovery company carefully and make sure that they are comfortable in handling all kinds of data failures properly.

Measuring Inventory with Restaurant POS August 20, 2012 at 8:47 pm

In businesses today, we cannot avoid being victimized by theft and the thing that helps to determine if stock is indeed stolen is through the help of restaurant POS. It helps to determine the amount of inventory available, which is critical to running a business effectively. Good restaurant point of sale software also help to lower the cost of hiring employees because managing the sales becomes easy. You will have your peace of mind because the maintenance of the pos system is also included in the warranty. Buying a pos system for your restaurant is truly one of the most effective things you can do to stay competitive.

Restaurant pos systems work differently when compared to retail because the software is specialized for restaurant management. It can count the stocks of food, organize employee shifts and can be a calculator for payroll. In other words, most restaurant point of sale systems can do more than one task, which is very beneficial for the betterment of the business. There is so much to learn about these systems if you are running a restaurant,; you will be amazed at what it can do to change your food service company for the better.

Restaurant POS for Busy Ordering

The use of restaurant pos serves as an accounting bonus in that it records and gives real-time report anytime the owner demands it. The point of sale system functions in a way that it will be useful for the restaurant operation. The greatest advantage of restaurant pos is the ability to do the inventory of restaurant’s supplies. It can as well give information when asked of daily time record of employees. The schedule can reflect on the point of sale system which restaurant’s employees are monitored. The performance of restaurant pos is also similar to with retail point of sale when it comes to service – see http://www.possoftwaresystems.net/

The restaurant pos are very well suited for fast food chains or busy restaurants where there are long lines where customers are waiting for their turn. It makes it an easy task for cashiers to get food orders because they just have to work with the touch screen on what is the customers’ order. It’s a truly killer application for any restauranteur, and is necessary for success.

POS Software History

POS software has come a long way. In the past, nothing like this was available. People used to say point of sale in reference to a hardware device that could belt out receipts when some numbers were typed into it. This was tiring and it never used to keep any records. To do inventory and audits, the employees would be forced to go to these long tapes and read one by one the transactions while adding them up.

Needless to say, such systems are obsolete in the world of today. They not only take a lot of time but they will simply not be applicable. Now retailers have learned to customize their POS software according to their operations and their needs. The result is a fast working system where one gets everything done in just a matter of minutes.

The ETR machines were used chiefly by the government for taxation. These days it is so easy to put everything in the system and every item available at a store has the certain percentage of tax to be cut from it. This is done automatically when one inserts the bar code in to the system. This is a system that caters for everyone because it avoids the occurrence of so many errors.

This particular software is very important and especially in businesses with a lot of customers. It makes work easier and faster and makes sure that all sales are accounted for. From large grocery stores to supermarkets and restaurants, the use of point of sale software cannot be avoided. This is because they make things move along faster and avoid fraudulent dealings with workers.

In the recent past, people have embraced the use of computers and Smartphone for every transaction. This means that one can operate with minimum use of employees. The advancement is so great that, now, one can even do all the transaction without being served by a cashier. The customers just pass the barcode of each item picked and pay by credit card on their own.

The advancement of POS software has seen the greatest increase in the amount of functions that it can perform. Not only will one be able to keep records for procurement and warehousing details, they will also be able to keep tabs on all sales they have made for a certain period of time. Sometimes the software will have to be customized to ensure that it caters for the specific items being sold. The more immeasurable the goods the harder customizing will be. This is why grocery stores have scales to help in quantification.

Peru Has Changed Markedly Over The Past 20 Years June 24, 2012 at 5:00 pm

By 1992 Peruvians considered the fight with the Sendero to be lost or at a stalemate. President

Fujimori’s reign was wracked with scandal and hope. He was sentenced to 6 years in jail in 2009.

had, nonetheless, drawn up anti-terrorist legislation calculated to uncover Sendero members and to hamper legal defense or even access to anyone arrested for subversion. The measures included a Law of Repentance, promising captured Senderistas a reduced sentence and even freedom if they delivered the names of 10 other Sendero members – a stratagem that in practice allowed them to finger the innocent. Since the Sendero made skillful use of minors, the law prescribed severe judgments against minors and allowed them to be jailed with adults. Military tribunals were given rights over civilians, and both civilian and military courts functioned sin rostro (with faces masked), lest the identity of judge or jury be known and reprisals taken.

AN INSPECTOR FROM THE UNITED NATIONS is said to have told the Peruvian Minister of Justice, “Not even Kafka could have imagined legislation such as you people have invented.” When President Fujimori presented this program to the Peruvian congress, they turned it down as violating due process. So Fujimori dissolved congress and announced the state of emergency under which Peru still functions. He did not, however, invent the corruptibility of the judicial system – the power of bribes to determine judicial venue, the quality of treatment for captives and even release or detention. This was already rife in the governments of Belaunde and Garcia, as were torture and extrajudicial executions. According to Rosa Maria Mojica, former executive secretary of the National Human Rights Coordinating Committee, anyone arrested in Peru, even for the theft of a chicken, can count on some torture. The human rights officials, for their part, keep being accused of playing into the hands of Sendero.

In the counterattack on the Sendero during the three recent governments, human rights groups put the number of the “disappeared” at about 6,000. They cite as particularly brutal an anti-terrorist campaign by the army in the district of Huanuco, from March through May 1994, subjecting campesinos to rape, robbery, executions and indiscriminate strafing. The villagers, in areas of Sendero activity, found themselves literally caught between two fires.

A TREMENDOUS SIGH OF RELIEF went up m October 1992 with the late-night arrest in Lima of Abimael Guzman and almost the entire directorate of die Sendero. But popular dismay was great this January at the outbreak of war with Ecuador over a border area of thick woods and watershed used mostly for hunting. This strange episode, which cost a few dozen fatalities on both sides, kept South Americans glued to thier television sets for weeks. The Peruvian version of events, verified by a Jesuit who works on the Maranon River not far from the site, is that the location of the border, settled by protocol in 1942, though still blurry on some maps, was well known locally and that Ecuadorians crossed it months ago. They shifted southward a small border outpost named Tiwinza (the Peruvians dubbed it “false Tiwinza”). The major fighting took place there.

Apart from national pride, the rhyme and reason for this struggle are elusive. Are there mineral riches, as claimed? This is far from sure. Why would Peru pick the rainy season for an attack? Was this another astute move of President Fujimori, the redoubtable chessplayer who faces 13 opponents in a national election in April? Was it a way to recoup some favor for the army, whose image stood in need of burnishing?

The image of the army has been tarnished by recent revelations of its connection with the drug traffic. Peru is the major producer of coca leaves, in a northerly mountainous area covering three counties-Huanuco, San Martin and Amazonas. The area is pocked with small airports from which the leaves are taken for processing to Colombia (and to Bolivia, the cocaine port for Europe). The courageous witness of some soldiers and the arrest of the three Lopez brothers, major traffickers in Peru, brought to the public eye a network of complicity. Civilian and military authorities have been receiving tribute for every flight out. Officers reportedly pay for the privilege of serving in this territory for six months, by which time a large nest egg is assured them. It is said too that the daily maintenance of military units in these areas is left to be funded from drug trafficking.

Drug money from coca-leaf production (and now some poppy growing) has become crucial not only to dirt-poor farmers but to the financial system, for currency exchange, bank solvency, even, apparently, for national reserves. In this narco-economy it is barely possible to resist temptation. Pay for the military has been miserable: for a general, about $400 a month; a lieutenant, perhaps $150; foot soldiers, a pittance. A supreme court judge, until last year, earned between $300 and $400. A school teacher earns $150; a school administrator, between $180 and $200. When pensioned, they can look forward to $40 to $50 monthly. In search of solutions, people speak of legalizing cocaine, though they know what a howl would go up internationally. They also muse: What if the United States, which funds the Peruvian military to extirpate drugs, shared some of this funding with farmers for alternative crops – rice, friuit, grain?

Where, realistically, does hope lie for Peru? President Fujimori, with his distrust of intermediary structures and his pragmatic rather than politically principled leadership, is not helping the country toward adulthood. (He has moved to assure honest conection of taxes, a true accomplishment, and has brought down inflation.) Achieving democracy, observers point out, means more than just having an honest election. The key thing is to bring about a government and society of laws, an end to favoritism and arbitrary decisions. Anyone circulating around Lima will soon note the low level of law-abiding among citizen drivers. Educators and promoters of human rights in Peru argue that, with its huge proportion of youth, school is a place where respect for die individual and for due process has to be inculcated and practiced, inducing self-respect, initiative and social responsibility in the young.

The Manu Biosphere Remains A Draw at 4:55 pm

The vast richness of species in the tropical forest means conservation measures need to be put in place before we even know what is there. Jessica Groenendijk and Frank Hajek report from the Manu Biosphere Reserve Expedition, which investigated sustainable fish-farming

The Manu Biosphere Reserve in southeastern Peru is one of the least known regions of the vast Amazonian jungle and is, as yet, largely untouched by the negative impact of humans.

Within the reserve there is Andean grassland, cloud forest and tropical jungle ecosystems that are richly diverse in species and habitats. In 1987, the Manu Biosphere Reserve was declared a World Heritage Site by the IUCN The World Conservation Union.

Established as a biosphere reserve in 1977, Manu is divided into three zones. The Nucleus Zone is the national park proper, covering an area of over 1.5 million hectares, and it is the largest in Peru. Access is restricted and can only be obtained in exceptional circumstances. The Reserved Zone is a region of 257,000 hectares, encompassing the greater part of the River Manu basin and its tributary, the River Pinguen. Scientific research is permitted in this zone, and there are also a number of tourist activities, albeit in a controlled form. Access to both these zones is only possible by river.

In the Cultural Zone, almost anything is permitted, including fishing, hunting and logging. Indigenous peoples, as well as colonists from Cuzco and other parts of Peru, may settle here and cultivate crops in chacras (small plots). The zone covers an area of almost 100,000 hectares from the Acjanaco Control Post in the high Andes to the native community of Diamante in the basin of the River Alto Madre de Dios. All three zones, in fact, include indigenous community territories. As roads are few and far between, colonisation is largely along the rivers where boat transport is possible.

Little is known about the fish of the Manu Biosphere Reserve. Our intention was to expand the reserve’s information base so that recommendations could be made to help safeguard natural fish populations.

Towards this goal, we recognised that there was a need to establish small-scale fish farms in local communities in order to reduce fishing pressure on natural fish resources. These would provide a more comprehensive diet for the local population, and in the long-term, generate much-needed funds for the reserve. By interviewing local people (we asked them which fish they preferred, whether they ate all of it, and how much meat each variety provided), we identified six species of native fish as having the potential to be cultivated in extensive, small-scale pond farms. These were, in order of preference, gamitana (Colossoma macroponum), paco (Piaratus brachypomus), red-tailed sabalo (Brycon erythropterum), boquichico (Prochilodus nigricans), lisa (Leporinus trifasciatus) and lisa (Schizodon fasciatus).

Truly gorgeous sites.

All the species on this list are planktivorous or omnivorous, which are more likely to be cost-effective — at least in terms of dietary requirements — because they don’t feed on meat. All produce good quality white meat and are therefore particularly favoured by the local people. With the exception of the boquichico, the fish have only a few large bones, and growth rates are rapid. They are relatively easy to catch as adults, although the gamitana is quite rare. However, in their natural environment, all breed in fast flowing water, after migrating to their spawning grounds. Since the finer details of their breeding habits are unknown, putting spawning facilities into pond farms is impractical and prohibitive in terms of cost. The alevins or fry must therefore be collected directly from the rivers.

But there are further obstacles, including the invasion of ponds by predatory fish such as the huasaco (Hoplias malabaricus), which is reputed to travel overland in wet conditions. There is also a profound lack of knowledge of fish biology — feeding requirements and breeding behaviour in particular — and of local fish nomenclature. There is very little experience of Peruvian fish-farming to fall back on, so that even the most basic figures and statistics, such as stocking densities, are unavailable.

There is still alot of work to do. Studies into the scale and extent of barbasco fishing — using a plant extract in a sealed pond or backwater to asphyxiate the fish — would be useful. It tends to kill small fry more quickly and is having a damaging effect on local fish populations. In addition, the use of dynamite as a fishing method needs to be investigated, as does mercury poisoning in migratory fish — a result of gold mining operations.

We also made a number of recommendations regarding park management, such as the raising of park entrance fees and the introduction of a tax on tourist companies operating within the Manu Biosphere Reserve. We suggested that all game wardens receive comprehensive training and education in matters of park management and conservation and that working and living conditions be improved.

Mining In South America Works Wonders For The Economy at 4:19 pm

Mining in Peru is more than just trapped workers…

In general, the South American culture is more hierarchical and places more emphasis on the importance of groups. The implications of these values include a more vertically differentiated, hierarchical project team structure and the need for managers to be more autocratic. In addition, it is often necessary to be far more specific and provide greater detail when asking employees to complete a given task. In general, engineering and construction activities will require more supervision than would be the case in North America.

The importance of language proficiency cannot be overemphasized. The foreigner who speaks even a modest amount of Spanish will find his or her value to the project immeasurably enhanced. Before sending employees south for medium to long term assignments, North American firms are well advised to provide some basic instruction in Spanish, as well as local culture.

There is little doubt that capital project development in South America presents unique challenges. In some cases, the source of these challenges is due to regulatory differences and in other cases cultural differences, but whatever the reason, it is important to identify methods of adjusting to the differences to ensure that a project is completed satisfactorily. The following is a summary of differences that Kilborn has observed.

Engineering capabilities

In general, Peru, Chile and Brazil have a pool of well educated engineers, designers and drafting personnel available in most disciplines and technical staff generally tend to be well versed in theory. Where there are deficiencies, they are usually due to limited practical experience in the mining industry, or to lack of trained personnel in specific areas such as process metallurgy or instrumentation.

One area where Chilean and Peruvian engineering companies often lag behind their North American counterparts is in the implementation of internal project controls to effectively monitor manhour expenditure and production of drawings and specifications to meet schedule commitments. In addition, project managers sometimes do not have the authority or experience that is necessary to control large engineering projects effectively.

Engineering costs

Charge-out rates for expatriates range from two to five times those for local personnel in the mining consulting field. It is difficult to be specific about comparative productivities but it is generally accepted that the higher productivity typically achieved in North American engineering offices will go a long way to offset the initial man-hour cost advantage of South American engineers. In general, a productivity of approximately one-third of North American standards for both engineering and construction can be used to produce a rough estimate of labour costs associated with projects in South America.

Generally, despite low labour rates, direct engineering and construction labour costs are not substantially lower in South America, due to both labour productivity and additional work that would not be required in North America. However, in some cases, taxation on work completed outside of the country can make completing engineering work in South America less expensive.

In addition to productivity differences, estimating man-hour requirements for engineering design contracts in South America will be affected by some of the standard engineering practice differences. For instance fabrication drawings for structural steel and platework are completed by the fabricator in North America, based on design drawings from the engineer. In South America, the engineering firm usually produces all fabrication drawings, and the engineering firm typically produces all of the detailed re-bar schedules for the civil contractor. Also engineering companies are expected to produce installation drawings for almost every piece of equipment, showing location dimensions, platform access levels, and size and location of all services connections. In North America, it is usually only necessary to complete installation drawings to this level of detail for large, complicated equipment.

Construction and Management

Peru, Chile and Brazil have very capable construction firms. However, it is often the case that engineering firms engaged in EPCM contracts are not strong in the area of construction management. As a result, management systems for contract administration, cost control, purchasing and project scheduling often require the support of North American consulting firms.

As previously mentioned, it is necessary to produce installation drawings for every piece of equipment, regardless of its size or complexity. North American practice, such as delegating the responsibility for field run piping or pump bases to the sub-contractor, for example, is often impractical, if not impossible, for use in South America. Clearly, this can have negative impacts on project schedule if there are any problems with engineering drawings because, in some cases, the contractor will emphasise compliance with engineering drawings as opposed to functionality.

The scope of responsibility of contractors is also different. In most North American projects it is unnecessary to specify, for example, heaters for electrical starters, because the electrical subcontractor will install them, if needed. In South America, however, the engineering firm is responsible for specifying and ensuring that all materials are on-site and if heaters were not specified in the purchase order, the electrical contractor will not have heaters to install.

Procurement

Broadly speaking, procurement can be subdivided into two areas, imported equipment purchases and local equipment purchases, and each has its own peculiarities and pitfalls.

For mining and metallurgical projects large and/or complex process equipment must be imported. For imported purchases, either FOB shipping port or CIF local port basis can be selected. When purchasing FOB shipping port it is essential that the engineer or owner hire an experienced and competent freight forwarder, who is familiar with local shipping and importation requirements. If equipment is to be imported on a CIF local port basis, the key to success is to hire an experienced customs agent who has handled importation of equipment for the mining industry.

In the case of CIF, the equipment vendors will have their own freight forwarders, and will be responsible for all freight and insurance until the goods are unloaded in the local port. Regardless of the method used, we are all aware of situations when urgently needed equipment has been stranded in customs for weeks because of improperly executed documentation. The challenges associated with importing equipment and materials are compounded by the need to produce all documentation in Spanish or Portugese, and often North American standards, such as NPT (National Pipe Thread), do not have a local equivalent. It has been Kilborn’s experience that any additional cost associated with hiring freight forwarders or customs agents are paid back in project schedule, which can swing as much as eight weeks depending on the performance of the equipment importation group.

Each country has specific laws regarding the importation of equipment, and hiring local expertise in this area is extremely important. As an example, in Chile mining equipment which will generate export revenue will qualify for a deferral of import duty payment, but only if the first shipment for a given piece of equipment is the largest, both in terms of weight and value. Furthermore, the value of spare parts shipped cannot exceed 10% of the total value of the shipment. Obviously, local expertise can have a significant impact on both project costs and schedule.

A growing selection of mining and metallurgical process equipment is now being manufactured locally in South America. In Chile, for example, pumps, hydrocyclones, belt conveyors, cranes and flotation cells are among the equipment that can be purchased locally. In most cases, quality is up to North American standards, but quoted shipment dates are not always reliable and therefore buyers often insist upon a penalty clause for late delivery.

In conclusion, when considering working in South America, the first step should involve gaining a better understanding of your work environment. One aspect of this includes becoming knowledgeable about the business regulations in the country of interest. Another aspect, equally as important, is learning how to adapt your business approach to suit the local culture, language and customs.

POS Systems Can Be Your Right Hand April 1, 2012 at 5:13 pm

When it comes to business management especially in monitoring sales, inventory and trading of your business, a pos system that is also defined as Point of Sale System is your right hand. It will make the job a lot accurate for you when it comes to business management and at the same time to cut-off your operation cost is a great advantage to consider. It is important that we can adopt some changes when it comes to technology since most of the time technology will be a great help in our end to make our lives a lot easier and for us to become more competitive. There are many reasons why pos systems are very important in every business. It helps to manage the business most especially in watching over the cash flow and stocks.

Happier customers with POS systems.The pos systems will help you improve your customer service since every transaction will be dealt faster than before since it is one thing that most consumers are looking from a company, a company that could provide them fast service. By the use of pos systems, you will be able to check the detailed reports of your sales in real time and aside from that managing your inventory at the same time.

Choose your pos systems for your specific needs, good brands, with new models such for restaurant and retail pos system. The functionality of the said system is one of the keys for a good business. Considering the hardware to function easily for comfortable use should be seriously studied. When buying, you can have the complete sets, which includes the LCD monitor, keyboard, cash drawer, receipt printer and barcode scanner. There will be software as well and they are a need for the pos systems to function effectively. You can easily have an upgrade just in case you like new models and you can easily find them online.

Now, if you have the pos systems installed in your store, you can now then expect an efficient cut costs because of the advantage that only the pos systems can provide. Tracking your sales will never be the same because you will experience a brand new way to save your time and effort. Your employees will be assisted with the system to help them with their join like your cashiers and your accounting clerks. You can start to have your own study about it by annually keeping track of the records you have.

There are so many advantages that come with the improved POS software. This is because one can do easily all types of record keeping. It also makes it hard for employees to rob the owner because every purchase is well recorded. For this reason, it is important for every business and especially that has many customers to invest in the software.

The software is convenient because of so many reasons. This is because it helps the owners to cut on employment fees, as they do not need too many cashiers at the tills. Everything can be easily purchased and accounted for. The money used for employee salaries can be used for other purposes within the business. This will definitely account for higher net gains from the business.

The other advantage is now the POS software can be combined with a mobile device. This means that the business owner will carry their business everywhere they go. This makes sales so much easier too because now people can even buy things online. That means delivery businesses will be boosted by the virtue of having so many online customers. Inventory is also so much easier when one has installed the software. This is what the large-scale businesses should be investing in to ease their work.

Find out more about retail point of sale software at www.possoftwaresystems.net.

 

Textile Factories Ensure Success In Peru February 13, 2012 at 4:32 pm

The upcoming addition of four South American nations to a special U.S. apparel import program may have little effect on sourcing patterns from the Caribbean, Mexico or the Orient but domestic and importer interests still worry about the larger implications of this trade initiative.

“It is puzzling why the U.S. is setting up a new quota program for these countries at the very same time it is phasing out the [Multi-Fiber Arrangement] quotas,” said Jim Langlois, executive director, the International Apparel and Textile Association, a Knoxville-based importer trade group.

From the other end of the spectrum, Robert Antoshak, president Trade Resources Inc., a consulting firm used by domestic textile and apparel manufacturers, frets that giving any benefits to Colombia could boomerang on U.S. producers, since “it has a strong textile industry, unlike Mexico and the Caribbean nations.”

On Oct. 1, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia become the first nations outside of Mexico and those in the Caribbean Basin Initiative permitted to join the U.S.’s Special Access program for apparel.

Known to the trade by its shorthand 807(A) designation, it provides that apparel made in these nations using U.S.-cut-and-formed fabrics are dutiable in the U.S. based only on the value added during assembly. Crucially, these goods also are accorded Guaranteed Access Levels (GALs), in essence huge quotas that are increased at the exporting nation’s request

The 807(A) program, which dates to 1986, is strongly supported by domestic manufacturers as a way to increase the use of U.S. fabrics, lower apparel production costs via outbound processing and to return some apparel production from the Far East to the Western Hemisphere. In addition, apparel firms and their retail customers favor this production-assuming the price points are right – in the implementing of Quick Response programs.

The program has produced an import boom from the 24 CBI nations that participate in Special Access – growing from 142 million square meters equivalent worth about $431 million in 1990 to 341 million SME worth $1.1 billion last year, according to data compiled by the American Apparel Manufacturers Association.

The four South American nations, which form the Andean Pact, last year exported about 109 million SME of apparel to the U.S., with about 80 percent of this shipped by Colombian makers.

Michael Gale, the AAMA’s government relations director, said its members approve of extending the program to these nations so long as there is the necessary policing to insure there are no abuses – especially transshipment” from Far Eastern nations.

Antoshak whose firm is based in Alexandria, Va., said that while sourcing from Colombia has been the most significant among the four, it has been only in a few, select apparel items. For example, U.S. imports of Colombian cotton underwear, category 352, rose 70.1 percent to 5.4 million SME for the year ended in July. Imports of Colombian man-made fiber underwear, category 652, increased 63.8 percent to 19.1 million SME for the year ended July.

Women’s and girls’ cotton slacks, category 348, make up another large-volume apparel product from Colombia. The 9.4 million SME of these slacks shipped to the U.S. for the year ended in July, however, reflected a 9.7 percent decline from the previous year. It also has a growing wool apparel export business, especially women’s and girls’ coats, skirts, shirts and suits, but the volumes generally are less than a half million SME for the year ended in June.

The three other nations export wool apparel, particularly sweaters, but are considered minor sources for U. S. importers.

Antoshak said he doesn’t believe any of the four will move quickly to challenge CBI powerhouses, such as the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Costa Rica or Honduras, as offshore apparel sources, explaining Colombia’s labor costs are not as competitive as in the Caribbean and they have infra-structure problems.” He has some concerns that stepped-up exports to the U.S. due to the new program could ultimately promote more demand for Colombian apparel made from its own textiles, thereby competing with U.S. makers.

In actions preceding the expansion of Special Access, the U.S. in August signed an agreement with Colombia limiting its women’s and girls’ wool suit shipments, category 444, to 201,000 units with growth of 2 percent set for 1996 and again in 1997.

Textile factories like these make up a major part of the Peruvian economy.

In June, Colombia agreed to limit its shipment of cotton and man-made fiber underwear to the U.S. to 22.5 million dozen between mid-April and Dec. 31 and to 31.8 million dozen in 1996, with a further 2 percent growth the next year. However, in each period, 90 percent of these shipments must be made with U.S.- cut-and formed fabrics.

Despite the philosophical arguments against quota, the underwear pacts gave Colombia particularly generous numbers, considering that in the 12 months ended March 27, 1995, the country had shipped only 1.5 million dozen units of underwear to the U.S.

Several import industry officials aver there is a tie between these quotas and granting Special Access to the four nations-and they don’t like either. Brenda Jacobs, an attorney here who represents the U.S. Association of Importers of Textiles and Apparel, claimed the U.S. took this action “as a rationalization to get Colombia on board, to agree to the underwear quotas before it could appeal to the World Trade Organization in Geneva.”

For his part, Langlois, of the National Apparel and Textile Association, said that in addition to being contradictory to the Uruguay Round agreement to phase out all textile and apparel quotas by Jan. 1,2005, the creation of new quota programs only fuels speculation that domestic industries will seek an extension of the phaseout because of the complexities involved. Trade groups representing domestic makers have said they could not rule out the possibility of asking the U.S. to press for such an extension

A U.S. trade official sought to refute these assertions. The offer to extend the program to the Andean nations “had been made many times, even before 1993, but it was only now that they decided to take advantage of it,” said Rita Hayes, who now is the de facto chief U.S. textile negotiator, with the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative.

Fujimori Let Banks Walk All Over Peru January 12, 2012 at 4:39 pm

Spanish banks head the list of Europeans which are taking President Fujimori’s election success as a signal for action.

Peru has become a new battleground for Spain’s banking giants, Banco Bilbao Vizcaya and Banco Santander. Such a scenario was remote as little as four months ago. Although Peru was 1994′s star among emerging markets and is poised to be the Latin American continent’s highest growing country this year, few bankers could have predicted the surge of foreign banking interest, not just from Spain, but from Europe, the US and Latin America.

The tide changed in late April when Banco Bilbao Vizcaya (BBV), among the world’s top 70 banks, bought Peru’s third largest bank, Banco Continental, in association with the local Brescia group, for $196.7 million in cash and a further $60 million in Peruvian debt paper.

The purchase stunned the industry as it was more than three times the $55 million base price.

The move reflects BBV’s confidence in the sector’s growth prospects. It is no coincidence that the sale occurred just a week after President Alberto Fujimori’s sweeping electoral victory, which was seen as a green light  for the deepening of free market reforms.

Peru’s banking system is one of the least developed in the region. Financial disintermediation represents 18% of gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 40% in its southern neighbour Chile, the region’s most robust economy. Few Peruvian companies can provide the necessary capital for expansion, and so luring foreigners is vital for the system.

The foreign investment-friendly regime is a far cry from the scenario just eight years ago when former President Alan Garcia was intent on nationalising the sector.

The then punitive banking rules and the onslaught of terrorism and hyper-inflation led to the departure of a handful of foreign banks including Bank of Tokyo, Lloyds Bank, Bank of America and Chase Manhattan.

BBV’s entry also marks a new step for the Spanish bank, which has traditionally shied away from expansion in the region. Its domestic rivals, Banco Santander, Banco Central Hispano and the former Banesto, began to carve up a substantial chunk of the Chilean banking sector two years ago. It began as something that barely affected retailers, to the point where most POS systems were still setup to provide credit card processing transactions with other banks. POS software firms weren’t surprised, of course, because it was par for the course. Point of sale tends to change slowly around here.

The Santander Group has also taken innovative steps to deepen its regional presence – it operates in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay, Guatemala and El Salvador – by placing shares on the Santiago stock exchange.

This is the first time a multinational firm has listed its holding company’s equity directly on the Latin American stock market.

Although BBV’s foray into the continent is only just beginning, its aggressive expansion plans with the newly acquired Continental Bank will have irked Santander, which does not yet have a presence in Peru.

BBV is also intent on the Mexican market where it has offered $350 million or a 70% share of Grupo Financiero Probursa. And it is eyeing opportunities in Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Colombia.

Meanwhile Santander is not standing still. After its failed $130 million bid for Continental, it is exploring other avenues to enter Peru.

One option expected to materialise this month is the purchase of 90% of the shares in medium-sized Banco Mercantil del Peru for about $40-50 million. As Santander has a policy of playing a leading role in its markets, it is unlikely to settle just for Mercantil, which holds about 2% of the system’s deposits and loans.

Bankers are betting that Santander may buy another two, if not more, small banks and merge them together.

The entry of the Spaniards is expected to shake up the system where Citibank is the only fully fledged foreign player.

The biggest credit operators, traditionally shunned by banks, are retail shops and a new group of Chilean financial institutions which were set up last year.

The re-focus on business strategy will also include more stress on medium and small-sized companies, a reduction of costs and special training of staff, particularly in customer services.

Scotiabank in Peru, a Canadian banking enterprise.

Joining the high-profile Spanish banks for a slice of the opportunities in Peru are the following confirmed and prospective projects.

* More than 22 foreign banks have opened representative offices in Peru in the last 12 months, including Deutsch Sudamerikanische Bank (Germany), Swiss Bank Corporation, Morgan Grenfell (US), ING (Netherlands), Popular Bank of Florida (US);

* Bank of Boston plans to set up shop in Peru next year. It is one of the market leaders in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and is expanding rapidly in Chile;

* Credit Lyonnais, following domestic problems at home, is looking to sell its 40% stake in Banco de Lima which, with its 36 branches nationwide, is Peru’s sixth largest bank. Possible buyers are ING Bank, Banco de Occidente de Colombia and Sudameris (France). Banco Santander was understood to be close to an agreement but considered the $100 million asking price too high.

* UK investment bank Jardine Fleming plans to open its first two Latin American offices in Peru and Brazil. Analysts expect it to focus on foreign trade credit operations;

* Banco O’Higgins (Chile), owned by the Luksic group, wants to buy a second bank in Peru, part of a regional expansion which includes Bolivia and Argentina. It already runs the new Banco Libertador, which it originally owned with ING. Other Chilean groups muscling into Peru are Grupo Cruz Blanca and BHIF which have earmarked $6 million to set up a small credit-orientated bank. It would join the three other existing Chilean owned banks – Banco Solvents, Banco del Trabajo and Banco El Libertador.

* Banco de Colombia, owned by the Grupo Gilinski, is sniffing for a local bank. It is already operating in Ecuador.

* A Mexican banking group is understood to be in advanced negotiations to spend about $10-15 million for a 75% stake in Banco de Comercio, run by a military police pension fund (OMPP).